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Properties of substance:

nitric acid

Group of substances:

inorganic

Physical appearance:

colorless liquid

Empirical formula (Hill's system for organic substances):

HNO3

Structural formula as text:

HONO2

Molar/atomic mass: 63.01

Melting point (°C):

-41.6

Boiling point (°C):

83

Solubility (g/100 g of solvent):

diethyl ether: soluble [Ref.]
water: miscible [Ref.]

Multicomponent solubility (in wt%):

water 98,44%, nitric acid 1%, calcium sulfate 0,56%, 25 °C [Ref.]
water 94,904%, nitric acid 3,92%, calcium sulfate 1,176%, 25 °C [Ref.]
water 86,88%, nitric acid 11,26%, calcium sulfate 1,86%, 25 °C [Ref.]
water 97,1939%, nitric acid 2,796%, silver chloride 0,0101%, 0 °C [Ref.]
water 97,1807%, nitric acid 2,796%, silver chloride 0,0233%, 25 °C [Ref.]
water 97,178%, nitric acid 2,796%, silver chloride 0,026%, 30 °C [Ref.]
water 97,1477%, nitric acid 2,796%, silver chloride 0,0563%, 40 °C [Ref.]
water 97,095%, nitric acid 2,796%, silver chloride 0,109%, 50 °C [Ref.]
water 70,32%, nitric acid 4,93%, lead nitrate 24,75%, 26 °C, separating phase: Pb(NO3)2 [Ref.]
water 74,82%, nitric acid 12,96%, lead nitrate 12,22%, 26 °C, separating phase: Pb(NO3)2 [Ref.]
water 69,75%, nitric acid 25,99%, lead nitrate 4,26%, 26 °C, separating phase: Pb(NO3)2 [Ref.]
water 49,21%, nitric acid 50,26%, lead nitrate 0,53%, 26 °C, separating phase: Pb(NO3)2 [Ref.]
water 36,1%, nitric acid 63,84%, lead nitrate 0,06%, 26 °C, separating phase: Pb(NO3)2 [Ref.]
water 28,64%, nitric acid 71,35%, lead nitrate 0,008%, 26 °C, separating phase: Pb(NO3)2 [Ref.]

Properties of solutions:

0,3296% (wt.), solvent - water
  Density (g/cm3) = 1 (20°)
1% (wt.), solvent - water
  Viscosity (mPa·s) = 1,005 (20°)
  Density (g/cm3) = 1,0037 (20°)
  Freezing point (°C) = -0,56
1,255% (wt.), solvent - water
  Density (g/cm3) = 1,005 (20°)
2,164% (wt.), solvent - water
  Density (g/cm3) = 1,01 (20°)
4% (wt.), solvent - water
  Viscosity (mPa·s) = 1,014 (20°)
  Density (g/cm3) = 1,0202 (20°)
  Freezing point (°C) = -2,32
5% (wt.), solvent - water
  Density (g/cm3) = 1,0256 (20°)
10% (wt.), solvent - water
  Dynamic viscosity (mPa·s) = 1,044 (20°)
  Density (g/cm3) = 1,0543 (20°)
  Index of refraction = 1,346 (20°)
  Freezing point (°C) = -6,6
10,12% (wt.), solvent - water
  Density (g/cm3) = 1,055 (20°)
12% (wt.), solvent - water
  Viscosity (mPa·s) = 1,058 (20°)
  Density (g/cm3) = 1,066 (20°)
  Freezing point (°C) = -8,27
13,9% (wt.), solvent - water
  Freezing point (°C) = -10
15,9% (wt.), solvent - water

20% (wt.), solvent - water
  Density (g/cm3) = 1,115 (20°)
24,8% (wt.), solvent - water
  Electrical Conductivity (mS/cm) = 767,6 (18°)
25,48% (wt.), solvent - water
  Density (g/cm3) = 1,15 (20°)
30% (wt.), solvent - water
  Density (g/cm3) = 1,18 (20°)
31% (wt.), solvent - water
  Electrical Conductivity (mS/cm) = 781,9 (18°)
31,5% (wt.), solvent - water
  Freezing point (°C) = -40
32,7% (wt.), solvent - water
  Freezing point (°C) = -43
32,94% (wt.), solvent - water
  Density (g/cm3) = 1,2 (20°)
40% (wt.), solvent - water
  Molality (moles of solute per kg of solvent) = 10,58
  Molarity (moles of solute per liter of solution) = 7,913
  Density (g/cm3) = 1,2463 (20°)
  Freezing point (°C) = -30
48,42% (wt.), solvent - water
  Density (g/cm3) = 1,3 (20°)
50% (wt.), solvent - water
  Density (g/cm3) = 1,31 (20°)
53,8% (wt.), solvent - water
  Freezing point (°C) = -18,5
60% (wt.), solvent - water
  Density (g/cm3) = 1,3667 (20°)
64,74% (wt.), solvent - water
  Density (g/cm3) = 1,39 (20°)
65% (wt.), solvent - water
  Density (g/cm3) = 1,3913 (20°)
68,1% (wt.), solvent - water
  Density (g/cm3) = 1,405 (20°)
69,7% (wt.), solvent - water
  Freezing point (°C) = -40
70% (wt.), solvent - water
  Density (g/cm3) = 1,4134 (20°)
70,5% (wt.), solvent - water
  Freezing point (°C) = -42
71,63% (wt.), solvent - water
  Density (g/cm3) = 1,42 (20°)
72,5% (wt.), solvent - water
  Freezing point (°C) = -40
75% (wt.), solvent - water
  Density (g/cm3) = 1,4337 (20°)
77,75% (wt.), solvent - water
  Freezing point (°C) = -38
80% (wt.), solvent - water
  Density (g/cm3) = 1,4521 (20°)
82,4% (wt.), solvent - water
  Freezing point (°C) = -40
85% (wt.), solvent - water
  Density (g/cm3) = 1,4686 (20°)
89,95% (wt.), solvent - water
  Freezing point (°C) = -66,3
90% (wt.), solvent - water
  Density (g/cm3) = 1,4826 (20°)
91,9% (wt.), solvent - water
  Freezing point (°C) = -60
94,8% (wt.), solvent - water
  Freezing point (°C) = -50
95,46% (wt.), solvent - water
  Density (g/cm3) = 1,495 (20°)
99,01% (wt.), solvent - water
  Density (g/cm3) = 1,509 (20°)

Density:

1.513 (20°C, g/cm3)

Refractive index (nD):

1.397 (10.4°C)

Vapour pressure (Torr):

10 (-4.4°C)
47 (22°C)
60 (26°C)
100 (34.2°C)

Synthesis:

    KNO3 + H2SO4 → KHSO4 + HNO3 [Ref.]
    NaNO3 + H2SO4 → NaHSO4 + HNO3 [Ref.]

Dissociation:

H0 (1) = -6 (25°C, water)
H0 (1) = -3.78 (20°C, water)
pKa (1) = -1.64 (25°C, water)
pKa (1) = 9.38 (25°C, acetic acid)
pKa (1) = 3.17 (25°C, methanol)
pKa (1) = 3.57 (25°C, ethanol)

Standard molar enthalpy (heat) of formation ΔfH0 (298.15 K, kJ/mol):

-174.1 (l)

Standard molar Gibbs energy of formation ΔfG0 (298.15 K, kJ/mol):

-80.8 (l)

Standard molar entropy S0 (298.15 K, J/(mol·K)):

155.6 (l)

Molar heat capacity at constant pressure Cp (298.15 K, J/(mol·K)):

109.9 (l)

Molar enthalpy (heat) of fusion ΔfusH (kJ/mol):

10.47

Standard molar enthalpy (heat) of formation ΔfH0 (298.15 K, kJ/mol):

-133.9 (g)

Standard molar Gibbs energy of formation ΔfG0 (298.15 K, kJ/mol):

-73.5 (g)

Standard molar entropy S0 (298.15 K, J/(mol·K)):

266.9 (g)

Molar heat capacity at constant pressure Cp (298.15 K, J/(mol·K)):

54.1 (g)

References:

  1. Armarego W. L. F. Purification of Laboratory Chemicals. - 5ed. - 2003. - pp. 445
  2. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. - 90ed. - CRC Press, 2010. - pp. 5-13
  3. Holleman A.F., Wiberg E., Wiberg N. Lehrbuch der Anorganischen Chemie. - Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1995. - pp. 244
  4. Seidell A. Solubilities of inorganic and metal organic compounds. - 3ed., vol.1. - New York: D. Van Nostrand Company, 1940. - pp. 582-583
  5. Вредные вещества в промышленности: Справочник для химиков, инженеров и врачей. - 7-е изд., Т.3. - Л.: Химия, 1976. - pp. 117-118 [Russian]
  6. Мельников Е.Я., Салтанова В.П., Наумова А.М., Блинова Ж.С. Технология неорганических веществ и минеральных удобрений. - М.: Химия, 1983. - pp. 138-139 [Russian]
  7. Некрасов Б.В. Основы общей химии. - Т.1. - М.: Химия, 1973. - pp. 416-418, 427-430 [Russian]
  8. Неорганическая химия. - Под ред. Третьякова Ю.Д., Т.2. - М.: Academa, 2004. - pp. 196-201 [Russian]
  9. Рабинович В.А., Хавин З.Я. Краткий химический справочник. - Л.: Химия, 1977. - pp. 51 [Russian]
  10. Реми Г. Курс неорганической химии. - Т.1. - М., 1963. - pp. 642-647 [Russian]
  11. Справочник азотчика. - М.: Химия, 1987. - pp. 18-141 [Russian]
  12. Справочник химика. - 2 изд., Т.1. - Л.-М.: Химия, 1966. - pp. 607 [Russian]
  13. Справочник химика. - Т. 2. - Л.-М.: Химия, 1964. - pp. 12-13 [Russian]
  14. Химическая технология неорганических веществ. - Кн.1, под ред. Ахметова Т.Г. - М.: Высшая школа, 2002. - pp. 490-549 [Russian]
  15. Химическая энциклопедия. - Т. 1. - М.: Советская энциклопедия, 1988. - pp. 61-63 [Russian]
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    © Collected Ruslan Anatolievich Kiper, burewestnik@mail.ru