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Properties of substance:

sulfuric acid



skc-file

Group of substances:

inorganic

Physical appearance:

colorless viscous liquid

Empirical formula (Hill's system for organic substances):

H2O4S

Structural formula as text:

H2SO4

CAS No: 7664-93-9

Molar/atomic mass: 98.07

Melting point (°C):

10.31

Boiling point (°C):

279.6

Solubility (g/100 g of solvent):

ethanol: reaction [Ref.]
water: miscible [Ref.]

Multicomponent solubility (in wt%):

water 99,3%, sulfuric acid 0,486%, calcium sulfate 0,214%, 25 °C [Ref.]
water 98,158%, sulfuric acid 1,606%, calcium sulfate 0,236%, 25 °C [Ref.]
water 90,691%, sulfuric acid 9,051%, calcium sulfate 0,258%, 25 °C [Ref.]
water 82,302%, sulfuric acid 17,49%, calcium sulfate 0,208%, 25 °C [Ref.]
water 74,868%, sulfuric acid 25%, calcium sulfate 0,132%, 25 °C [Ref.]
water 23,03%, sulfuric acid 74,01%, magnesium sulfate 2,96%, 30 °C, separating phase: MgSO4 * 6H2O [Ref.]
water 35,87%, sulfuric acid 56,21%, magnesium sulfate 7,92%, 30 °C, separating phase: MgSO4 * 6H2O [Ref.]
water 1,3%, sulfuric acid 98,56%, magnesium sulfate 0,14%, 12,5 °C, separating phase: MgSO4 * 3H2O [Ref.]

Properties of solutions:

0,986% (wt.), solvent - water
  Density (g/cm3) = 1,005 (20°)
4% (wt.), solvent - water
  Density (g/cm3) = 1,025 (20°)
  Freezing point (°C) = -1,2
  Boiling point (°C) = 100,68
5% (wt.), solvent - water
  Electrical Conductivity (mS/cm) = 208,5 (18°)
  Electrical Conductivity (mS/cm) = 211 (20°)
6,956% (wt.), solvent - water
  Density (g/cm3) = 1,045 (20°)
9,843% (wt.), solvent - water
  Density (g/cm3) = 1,065 (20°)
10% (wt.), solvent - water
  Freezing point (°C) = -4
  Boiling point (°C) = 101,7
  Electrical Conductivity (mS/cm) = 391,5 (18°)
10,56% (wt.), solvent - water
  Density (g/cm3) = 1,07 (20°)
11,96% (wt.), solvent - water
  Density (g/cm3) = 1,08 (20°)
16% (wt.), solvent - water
  Boiling point (°C) = 103,08
16,08% (wt.), solvent - water
  Density (g/cm3) = 1,11 (20°)
19,42% (wt.), solvent - water
  Density (g/cm3) = 1,135 (20°)
20% (wt.), solvent - water
  Density (g/cm3) = 1,1394 (20°)
  Freezing point (°C) = -19
  Boiling point (°C) = 104,4
  Electrical Conductivity (mS/cm) = 652,7 (18°)
26% (wt.), solvent - water
  Boiling point (°C) = 105,91
29,57% (wt.), solvent - water
  Density (g/cm3) = 1,215 (20°)
30% (wt.), solvent - water
  Density (g/cm3) = 1,2185 (20°)
  Freezing point (°C) = -41,2
  Boiling point (°C) = 107,33
  Electrical Conductivity (mS/cm) = 738,8 (18°)
30,18% (wt.), solvent - water
  Density (g/cm3) = 1,22 (20°)
35,01% (wt.), solvent - water
  Density (g/cm3) = 1,26 (20°)
36% (wt.), solvent - water
  Boiling point (°C) = 110,79
36,19% (wt.), solvent - water
  Density (g/cm3) = 1,27 (20°)
36,5% (wt.), solvent - water
  Freezing point (°C) = -72,4
37,95% (wt.), solvent - water
  Density (g/cm3) = 1,285 (20°)
39% (wt.), solvent - water
  Freezing point (°C) = -58
40% (wt.), solvent - water
  Density (g/cm3) = 1,3028 (20°)
  Freezing point (°C) = -65,2
  Boiling point (°C) = 113,64
  Electrical Conductivity (mS/cm) = 680 (18°)
40,25% (wt.), solvent - water
  Density (g/cm3) = 1,305 (20°)
40,82% (wt.), solvent - water
  Density (g/cm3) = 1,31 (20°)
42% (wt.), solvent - water
  Freezing point (°C) = -54
  Boiling point (°C) = 115,11
45,8% (wt.), solvent - water
  Density (g/cm3) = 1,355 (20°)
48% (wt.), solvent - water
  Freezing point (°C) = -40
  Boiling point (°C) = 120
49,99% (wt.), solvent - water
  Density (g/cm3) = 1,395 (20°)
50% (wt.), solvent - water
  Boiling point (°C) = 123,6
56% (wt.), solvent - water
  Boiling point (°C) = 130,85
60% (wt.), solvent - water
  Dynamic viscosity (mPa·s) = 5,917 (20°)
  Density (g/cm3) = 1,4987 (20°)
  Index of refraction = 1,4077 (20°)
  Freezing point (°C) = -30
  Boiling point (°C) = 139,88
  Electrical Conductivity (mS/cm) = 372,6 (18°)
60,17% (wt.), solvent - water
  Density (g/cm3) = 1,5 (20°)
66% (wt.), solvent - water
  Boiling point (°C) = 153,45
69,96% (wt.), solvent - water
  Density (g/cm3) = 1,61 (20°)
70% (wt.), solvent - water
  Freezing point (°C) = -42
  Boiling point (°C) = 164,69
76% (wt.), solvent - water
  Boiling point (°C) = 185,63
79,81% (wt.), solvent - water
  Density (g/cm3) = 1,725 (20°)
80% (wt.), solvent - water
  Boiling point (°C) = 203,02
  Electrical Conductivity (mS/cm) = 110,5 (18°)
80,25% (wt.), solvent - water
  Density (g/cm3) = 1,73 (20°)
81% (wt.), solvent - water
  Freezing point (°C) = 0
84,5% (wt.), solvent - water
  Freezing point (°C) = 8,5
85% (wt.), solvent - water
  Electrical Conductivity (mS/cm) = 98 (18°)
86% (wt.), solvent - water
  Boiling point (°C) = 230,75
88,5% (wt.), solvent - water
  Freezing point (°C) = 0
90% (wt.), solvent - water
  Boiling point (°C) = 255
  Electrical Conductivity (mS/cm) = 107,5 (18°)
90,12% (wt.), solvent - water
  Density (g/cm3) = 1,815 (20°)
93,5% (wt.), solvent - water
  Freezing point (°C) = -35,5
95,72% (wt.), solvent - water
  Density (g/cm3) = 1,835 (20°)
96% (wt.), solvent - water
  Boiling point (°C) = 307,8
96,2% (wt.), solvent - water
  Density (g/cm3) = 1,8064 (50°)
  Density (g/cm3) = 1,7871 (70°)
97% (wt.), solvent - water
  Freezing point (°C) = -10
  Electrical Conductivity (mS/cm) = 80 (18°)
98% (wt.), solvent - water
  Boiling point (°C) = 327,2
98,5% (wt.), solvent - water
  Freezing point (°C) = 0
99% (wt.), solvent - water
  Boiling point (°C) = 310
99,4% (wt.), solvent - water
  Electrical Conductivity (mS/cm) = 8,5 (18°)

Numerical data:

Electrical Conductivity (mS/cm): 18.7

Density:

1.8305 (20°C, g/cm3)

Refractive index (nD):

1.429 (20°C)

Vapour pressure (Torr):

0.0005 (25°C)
1 (145.8°C)
10 (194.2°C)
100 (257°C)

    Dissociation:

    H0 (1) = -11.94 (25°C)
    pKa (1) = -3 (25°C, water)
    pKa (1) = 4.3 (25°C, acetic acid)
    pKa (1) = 8.47 (25°C, trichloroacetic acid)
    pKa (2) = 1.9 (25°C, water)
    pKs () = 3.6 (25°C)

    Viscosity (mPa·s):

    24.54 (25°C)

    Standard molar enthalpy (heat) of formation ΔfH0 (298.15 K, kJ/mol):

    -814.2 (l)

    Standard molar Gibbs energy of formation ΔfG0 (298.15 K, kJ/mol):

    -690.3 (l)

    Standard molar entropy S0 (298.15 K, J/(mol·K)):

    156.9 (l)

    Molar heat capacity at constant pressure Cp (298.15 K, J/(mol·K)):

    138.9 (l)

    Molar enthalpy (heat) of fusion ΔfusH (kJ/mol):

    10.7

    Enthalpy (heat) of vaporization ΔvapH (kJ/mol):

    50.2

    Standard molar enthalpy (heat) of formation ΔfH0 (298.15 K, kJ/mol):

    -743.9 (g)

    Standard molar entropy S0 (298.15 K, J/(mol·K)):

    301 (g)

    Molar heat capacity at constant pressure Cp (298.15 K, J/(mol·K)):

    80.8 (g)

    Enthalpy (heat) of solution ΔsolH (kJ)

    -75,7 (l) [18°C, 1 mol in 400 mol of water] [Ref.]

    References:

    1. Armarego W. L. F. Purification of Laboratory Chemicals. - 5ed. - 2003. - pp. 479
    2. Olah G.A., Prakash G.K.S., Molnar A., Sommer J. Superacid chemistry. - 2ed. - Wiley, 2009. - pp. 47
    3. Seidell A. Solubilities of inorganic and metal organic compounds. - 3ed., vol.1. - New York: D. Van Nostrand Company, 1940. - pp. 598-600
    4. Амелин А.Г., Яшке Е.В. Производство серной кислоты. - М.: Высшая школа, 1980 [Russian]
    5. Бабаян Э.А., Гаевский А.В., Бардин Е.В. Правовые аспекты оборота наркотических, психотропных, сильнодействующих, ядовитых веществ и прекурсоров. - М.: МЦФЭР, 2000. - pp. 147 [Russian]
    6. Гринвуд Н., Эрншо А. Химия элементов. - Т.2. - М.: БИНОМ. Лаборатория знаний, 2008. - pp. 59-64 [Russian]
    7. Гутман В. Химия координационных соединений в неводных растворах. - М.: Мир, 1971. - pp. 93-100 [Russian]
    8. Малин К.М., Боресков Г.К., Пейсахов И.Л., Слинько М.Г., Смыслов Н.И., Второв М.Н., Аркин Н.Л. Технология серной кислоты и серы. - М.-Л.: ГНТИХЛ, 1941. - pp. 23-33 [Russian]
    9. Некрасов Б.В. Основы общей химии. - Т.1. - М.: Химия, 1973. - pp. 60, 337-341 [Russian]
    10. Новый справочник химика и технолога. Общие сведения. Строение вещества. Физические свойства важнейших веществ. Ароматические соединения. Химия фотографических процессов. Номенклатура органических соединений. Техника лабораторных работ. Основы технологии. Интеллектуальная собственность. - СПб.: НПО Профессионал, 2006. - pp. 147 [Russian]
    11. Рабинович В.А., Хавин З.Я. Краткий химический справочник. - Л.: Химия, 1977. - pp. 97 [Russian]
    12. Соросовский образовательный журнал. - 1998. - №12. - pp. 61 [Russian]
    13. Справочник сернокислотчика. - Под ред. Малина К.М. - М.: Химия, 1971. - pp. 84-134 [Russian]
    14. Справочник химика. - Т.3. - М.-Л.: Химия, 1965. - pp. 118, 522-523 [Russian]
    15. Химическая энциклопедия. - Т. 4. - М.: Советская энциклопедия, 1995. - pp. 325-328 [Russian]
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      © Collected Ruslan Anatolievich Kiper, burewestnik@mail.ru