Main page (Russian) Search in database (English)
Sitemap (Russian)

Properties of substance:

benzol


benzole; benzene;


skc-file

Physical appearance:

colorless liquid

Empirical formula (Hill's system):

C6H6

Structural formula:

C6H6

CAS No: 71-43-2

Molar/atomic mass: 78.1118

Melting point (°C):

5.533

Boiling point (°C):

80.103

Solubility (g/100 g of solvent):

1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane: miscible
acetone: miscible
water: 0.153 (0°C)
water: 0.1807 (9°C)
water: 0.181 (20°C)
water: 0.185 (30°C)
water: 0.1902 (41°C)
water: 0.207 (51°C)
water: 0.2299 (61°C)
water: 0.4106 (99.99°C)
water: 2.17 (200°C, with pressure 65 bar)
water: 1.78 (200°C, with pressure 400 bar)
water: miscible (270°C)
diethylene glycol: 52 (20°C)
diethyl ether: miscible
formic acid 95%: 15.14 (25°C)
sulfolane: miscible
acetic acid: miscible
hydrogen fluoride : 1.56 (-20°C)
hydrogen fluoride : 1.67 (-15°C)
hydrogen fluoride : 1.88 (-10°C)
hydrogen fluoride : 2.05 (-5°C)
hydrogen fluoride : 2.3 (0°C)
hydrogen fluoride : 3.11 (15°C)
chloroform: miscible
ethanol: miscible
ethanediol: 5.83 (20°C)
ethanediol: 6 (25°C)
ethanediol: 6.61 (40°C)
ethanediol: 7.61 (60°C)

Density:

0.8895 (10°C, g/cm3)
0.879 (20°C, g/cm3)
0.8685 (30°C, g/cm3)
0.90006 (0°C, g/cm3)
0.8576 (40°C, g/cm3)
0.8357 (60°C, g/cm3)
0.8145 (80°C, g/cm3)

Synthesis 1:

Reference: Гитис С.С., Глаз А.И., Иванов А.В. Практикум по органической химии: Органический синтез. - М.: Высшая школа, 1991 pp. 186-187

18,6 gr of aniline is dissolved in a mixture of 60 ml of concentrated hydrochloric acid and 100 ml of water in porcelain beaker, equiped with a stirrer, a dropping funnel and a thermometer. The mixture is cooled on an ice bath until 0 C (small pieces of ice are placed into the beaker if necessary). 14,4 gr of sodium nitrite in 60 ml of water is added slowly from the dropping funnel to the cooled mixture of aniline hydrochloride. After addition of all sodium nitrite the mixture should give the reaction on potassium iodide starch test paper and have the acidic reaction on indicator paper. the solution, which was obtained by mixing 54 gr of SnCl2*2H2O in 60 ml of water and 70 gr of sodium hydroxide in 140 ml of water, is added to the diazosolution with caution and cooling. The rate of addition of this mixture depends on the intensity of releasing of nitrogen. Then the contents of the beaker is placed into a round-bottom flask and formed benzene is distilled with water steam. Water is separated in a separation funnel, benzene is dried with fused calcium chloride and distilled from a Wurtz flask.

The yield is 4,2 gr (27% from theory).

Benzene is a colourless liquid with boiling point at 80 C, d(20/4)=0,8790, n(20 C, D-line)=1,50165

UV-spectrum [λmax (lg e) ]: 184 nm (4,78) (in n-heptane). Spectrum NMR (in CCl4): singlet 7,24 ppm

Synthesis 2:

Reference: Реформатский С.Н. Начальный курс органической химии. - М.-Л.: ГИ, 1930 pp. 97

Well-mixed 25 gr of benzoic acid and 50 gr of caustic lime is heated in a copper or glass high-fusing retort, connected with a condenser and a receiver. Benzene, which is obtained in the receiver, is dried with calcium chloride and distilled with a thermometer. The boiling point is 80,4 C.

The yield is 12-14 gr.

Index of refraction:

1.50112 (20°C)
1.49478 (30°C)

Vapour pressure (Torr):

1 (-45°C)
10 (-11.6°C)
40 (7.5°C)
100 (26.1°C)
400 (60.6°C)

    Dissociation:

    pKBH+ (1) = -9.2 (0°C, hydrogen fluoride )
    pKa (1) = 37 (20°C, water)

    Permittivity (dielectric constant):

    2.284 (25°C)

    Standard molar enthalpy (heat) of formation ΔfH0 (298.15 K, kJ/mol):

    -82.98 (l)

    Standard molar entropy S0 (298.15 K, J/mol·K):

    269.38 (l)

    Molar heat capacity at constant pressure Cp (298.15 K, J/mol·K):

    81.6 (l)

    Molar enthalpy (heat) of fusion ΔfusH (kJ/mol):

    9.843

    Enthalpy (heat) of vaporization ΔvapH (kJ/mol):

    30.76

    Flash point (°C):

    -11

    Autoignition temperature (°C):

    534

    Heat of combustion (kJ/mol):

    3273.1

    LD50 (mg/kg):

    6400 (rats, oral)
    8100 (rats, oral)
    1800 (rats, oral)
    340 (mice, intraperitoneal)
    4700 (mice, oral)
    5700 (mice, oral)
    5000 (mice, oral)

    Critical temperature (°C):

    289.41

    Critical pressure (MPa):

    4.92

    Critical density (g/cm3):

    0.307

    References:

    1. Lewis R.J. Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. - 11ed. - Wiley-interscience, 2004. - pp. 360-361
    2. Seidell A. Solubilities of organic compounds. - 3ed., vol.2. - New York: D. Van Nostrand Company, 1941. - pp. 368-370
    3. Smallwood I.M. Handbook of organic solvent properties. - 1996. - pp. 35-37
    4. Yalkowsky S.H., Yan H. Handbook of aqueous solubility data. - CRC Press, 2003. - pp. 238-242
    5. Воскресенский П.И., Каверина А.А., Парменов К.Я., Цветков Л.А., Эпштейн Д.А. Справочник по химии. - 4 изд. - М.: Просвещение, 1978. - pp. 200
    6. Вредные вещества в промышленности: Справочник для химиков, инженеров и врачей. - 7-е изд., Т.1. - Л.: Химия, 1976. - pp. 88-97
    7. Вредные химические вещества: Углеводороды, галогенпроизводные углеводородов. Справочник. - Л.: Химия, 1990. - pp. 115-140
    8. Гордон А., Форд Р. Спутник химика. - М.: Мир, 1976. - pp. 186, 462
    9. Гурвич Я.А. Справочник молодого аппаратчика-химика. - М.: Химия, 1991. - pp. 229
    10. Некрасов Б.В. Основы общей химии. - Т.1. - М.: Химия, 1973. - pp. 550-551
    11. Новый справочник химика и технолога. Общие сведения. Строение вещества. Физические свойства важнейших веществ. Ароматические соединения. Химия фотографических процессов. Номенклатура органических соединений. Техника лабораторных работ. Основы технологии. Интеллектуальная собственность. - СПб.: НПО Профессионал, 2006. - pp. 557-605
    12. Огородников С.К., Лестева Т.М., Коган В.Б. Азеотропные смеси: Справочник. - Л.: Химия, 1971. - pp. 282
    13. Промышленные хлорорганические продукты: Справочник. - М.: Химия, 1978. - pp. 620-622
    14. Рабинович В.А., Хавин З.Я. Краткий химический справочник. - Л.: Химия, 1977. - pp. 129
    15. Справочник по растворимости. - Т.1, Кн.1. - М.-Л.: ИАН СССР, 1961. - pp. 432-433
    16. Справочник по растворимости. - Т.1, Кн.2. - М.-Л.: ИАН СССР, 1962. - pp. 1111, 1263
    17. Справочник химика. - 2 изд., Т.1. - Л.-М.: Химия, 1966. - pp. 553
    18. Справочник химика. - Т.3. - М.-Л.: Химия, 1965. - pp. 634
    19. Химическая энциклопедия. - Т.1. - М.: Советская энциклопедия, 1988. - pp. 268-269
    20. Химия и жизнь. - 1990. - №5. - pp. 82
    21. Энциклопедия для детей. - Т.17: Химия. - М.: Аванта+, 2004. - pp. 376, 380-381
      What information do you need?



      © Collected Ruslan Anatolievich Kiper, burewestnik@mail.ru