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Properties of substance:

citric acid


Physical appearance:

colorless crystals

Empirical formula (Hill's system):

C6H8O7

Structural formula:

(HOOCCH2)2C(OH)COOH

Molar/atomic mass: 192.13

Melting point (°C):

153.5

Destruction point (°C):

175

Solubility (g/100 g of solvent):

amyl acetate: 4.41 (25°C)
benzene: insoluble
water: 133 (20°C)
water: 525 (100°C)
dimethylsulphoxide: 40 (20.3°C)
1,4-dioxane: 35.9 (25°C)
diethyl ether: 1.05 (25°C)
methanol: 197 (19°C)
formic acid 95%: 12.25 (20°C)
p-cymene: 0.034 (25°C)
propanol: 62.8 (19°C)
carbon disulphide: insoluble
toluene: insoluble
trichloroethylene: 0.012 (15°C)
chloroform: insoluble
ethanol: 62 (25°C)

Density:

1.542 (18°C, g/cm3)

Index of refraction:

1.46 (150°C)

Dissociation:

pKa (1) = 3.128 (25°C, water)
pKa (2) = 4.761 (25°C, water)
pKa (3) = 6.388 (25°C, water)

LD50 (mg/kg):

290 (rats, intraperitoneal)
6400 (rats, oral)
7280 (mice, oral)

Reactions:

    HOC(COOH)(CH2COOH)2 → OC(CH2COOH)2 + CO + H2O

References:

  1. Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics. - 1987. - Vol.19. - pp. 317-320
  2. Jouyban A. Handbook of solubility data for pharmaceutacals. – CRC Press, 2010. - pp. 72
  3. Seidell A. Solubilities of organic compounds. - 3ed., vol.2. - New York: D. Van Nostrand Company, 1941. - pp. 427-429
  4. Yalkowsky S.H., Yan H. Handbook of aqueous solubility data. - CRC Press, 2003. - pp. 278-279
  5. Краткая химическая энциклопедия. - т.2, Ж-Малоновый эфир. - М.: Советская энциклопедия, 1963. - pp. 968
  6. Смирнов В.А. Пищевые кислоты. - М.: Легкая и пищевая промышленность, 1983. - pp. 249
  7. Справочник по растворимости. - Т.1, Кн.1. - М.-Л.: ИАН СССР, 1961. - pp. 446-447
  8. Справочник по растворимости. - Т.1, Кн.2. - М.-Л.: ИАН СССР, 1962. - pp. 1137, 1163, 1463-1464
  9. Справочник химика. - Т.2. - Л.-М.: Химия, 1964. - pp. 758-759
  10. Токсикологический вестник. - 1994. - №5. - pp. 9-12
  11. Хёрд Ч.Д. Пиролиз соединений углерода. - Л.-М.: ГОНТИ РКТП СССР, 1938. - pp. 436-437
  12. Химическая энциклопедия. - Т.2. - М.: Советская энциклопедия, 1990. - pp. 594
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    © Collected Kiper Ruslan Anatolievich