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Properties of substance:

hydrogen chloride

Synonyms:

hydrochloric acid

Physical appearance:

colorless gas

Empirical formula (Hill's system for organic substances):

HCl

Structural formula as text:

HCl

Molar/atomic mass: 36.46

Melting point (°C):

-114.2

Boiling point (°C):

-85.08

Destruction point (°C):

1500

Solubility (g/100 g of solvent):

1-butanol: 40.69 (25°C) [Ref.]
2-butanol: 44.72 (25.5°C) [Ref.]
benzylic alcohol: 24.29 (19.9°C) [Ref.]
benzene: 1.9 (20°C) [Ref.]
butyl acetate: 17.45 (19.7°C) [Ref.]
water: 96 (-18.3°C) [Ref.]
water: 93.31 (-15°C) [Ref.]
water: 89.79 (-10°C) [Ref.]
water: 82.3 (0°C) [Ref.]
water: 78.7 (10°C) [Ref.]
water: 72.47 (20°C) [Ref.]
water: 67.3 (30°C) [Ref.]
water: 63.3 (40°C) [Ref.]
water: 59.6 (50°C) [Ref.]
water: 56.1 (60°C) [Ref.]
dimethylsulphoxide: very soluble [Ref.]
methylene chloride: 1.39 (-10°C) [Ref.]
methylene chloride: 0.794 (0°C) [Ref.]
methylene chloride: 0.568 (25°C) [Ref.]
diethyl ether: 55.28 (0°C) [Ref.]
diethyl ether: 43.58 (10°C) [Ref.]
diethyl ether: 33.16 (20°C) [Ref.]
diethyl ether: 24.18 (30°C) [Ref.]
i-butanol: 41.28 (24.3°C) [Ref.]
i-propanol: 53.23 (27.3°C) [Ref.]
butyric acid: 6.29 (21.3°C) [Ref.]
methanol: 105.3 (0°C) [Ref.]
methanol: 88.7 (18°C) [Ref.]
methanol: 75.4 (31.7°C) [Ref.]
methyl acetate: 24.82 (19°C) [Ref.]
chloroacetic acid: 1.15 (49°C) [Ref.]
formic acid: 6.5 (8.1°C) [Ref.]
formic acid: 4.76 (22.5°C) [Ref.]
formic acid: 2.62 (42.9°C) [Ref.]
nitrogen(II) oxide liquid: 40.4 (-132°C) [Ref.]
nitrogen(II) oxide liquid: 81.2 (-124°C) [Ref.]
propanol: 49.2 (25.6°C) [Ref.]
propionic acid: 6.84 (17°C) [Ref.]
propionic acid: 6.2 (23.3°C) [Ref.]
sulfuric acid: 0.4015 (25°C) [Ref.]
sulfolane: 9.3 (25°C) [Ref.]
carbon tetrachloride: 0.39 (20°C) [Ref.]
trichloroacetic acid: 0.33 (66.7°C) [Ref.]
acetic acid: 11.48 (11°C) [Ref.]
acetic acid: 10.02 (16°C) [Ref.]
acetic acid: 7.34 (27°C) [Ref.]
hydrogen fluoride : insoluble [Ref.]
chloroform: 0.55 (20°C) [Ref.]
cyclohexane: 0.63 (20°C) [Ref.]
ethanol: 77.67 (0°C) [Ref.]
ethanol abs.: 69.5 (20°C) [Ref.]
ethyl acetate: 21.1 (20.4°C) [Ref.]
ethyl formane: 10.58 (24.3°C) [Ref.]

Numerical data:

Polarizability of molecules (nm3): 0.0031

Density:

0.0016391 (0°C, g/cm3)
1.187 (-85.1°C, g/cm3)
1.469 (-166°C, g/cm3)
1.48 (-154.79°C, g/cm3)
1.265 (-112.4°C, g/cm3)
1.2347 (-101.5°C, g/cm3)
1.2038 (-90°C, g/cm3)

Index of refraction:

1.0004456 (0°C)
1.256 (-85.1°C)

    Dissociation:

    H0 (1) = -4.6 (25°C, water)
    pKa (1) = 2.89 (25°C, 1-butanol)
    pKa (1) = 3.35 (25°C, 1-hexanol)
    pKa (1) = 3.89 (25°C, 1-heptanol)
    pKa (1) = 3.83 (25°C, i-butanol)
    pKa (1) = -7 (25°C, water)
    pKa (1) = 4 (25°C, acetone)
    pKa (1) = 5.4 (25°C, acetic acid)
    pKa (1) = 3.6 (25°C, benzonitrile)
    pKa (1) = 1.23 (25°C, methanol)
    pKa (1) = 3.55 (25°C, dimethylformamide)
    pKa (1) = 2 (25°C, dimethylsulphoxide)
    pKa (1) = 2.9 (25°C, liquid ammonia)
    pKa (1) = 0.89 (25°C, formic acid)
    pKa (1) = 1.95 (25°C, ethanol)
    pKa (1) = 13.32 (25°C, butyric acid)
    pKa (1) = 5.4 (25°C, pyridine)

    Permittivity (dielectric constant):

    1.0046 (25°C)
    14.2 (-114.02°C)

    Standard molar enthalpy (heat) of formation ΔfH0 (298.15 K, kJ/mol):

    -91.8 (g)

    Standard molar Gibbs energy of formation ΔfG0 (298.15 K, kJ/mol):

    -94.79 (g)

    Standard molar entropy S0 (298.15 K, J/mol·K):

    186.8 (g)

    Molar heat capacity at constant pressure Cp (298.15 K, J/mol·K):

    29.13 (g)

    Molar enthalpy (heat) of fusion ΔfusH (kJ/mol):

    1.99

    Enthalpy (heat) of vaporization at boiling point ΔvapH (kJ/mol)

    16,15 (l) [Ref.]

    Enthalpy (heat) of vaporization ΔvapH (kJ/mol)

    9,08 (l) [25°C] [Ref.]

    Critical temperature (°C):

    51.4

    Critical pressure (MPa):

    8.26

    Critical density (g/cm3):

    0.42

    References:

    1. Inorganic Syntheses. - Vol. 1. - New York and London, 1939. - pp. 147-149
    2. Seidell A. Solubilities of inorganic and metal organic compounds. - 3ed., vol.1. - New York: D. Van Nostrand Company, 1940. - pp. 571-578
    3. Вредные вещества в промышленности: Справочник для химиков, инженеров и врачей. - 7-е изд., Т.3. - Л.: Химия, 1976. - pp. 41-42
    4. Девятых Г.Г., Зорин А.Д. Летучие неорганические гидриды особой чистоты. - М.: Наука, 1974. - pp. 179-190
    5. Левинский М.И, Мазанко А.Ф., Новиков И.Н. Хлористый водород и соляная кислота. - М.: Химия, 1985
    6. Лурье Ю.Ю. Справочник по аналитической химии. - М.: Химия, 1979. - pp. 91
    7. Некрасов Б.В. Основы общей химии. - Т.1. - М.: Химия, 1973. - pp. 256-259
    8. Промышленные хлорорганические продукты: Справочник. - М.: Химия, 1978. - pp. 636-638
    9. Рабинович В.А., Хавин З.Я. Краткий химический справочник. - Л.: Химия, 1977. - pp. 110
    10. Реутов О.А., Курц А.Л., Бутин К.П. Органическая химия. - 2-е изд., Ч.1. - М.: Бином. Лаборатория знаний, 2005. - pp. 232
    11. Справочник по растворимости. - Т.1, Кн.1. - М.-Л.: ИАН СССР, 1961. - pp. 343-344
    12. Справочник по растворимости. - Т.1, Кн.2. - М.-Л.: ИАН СССР, 1962. - pp. 984-995
    13. Справочник химика. - Т.3. - М.-Л.: Химия, 1965. - pp. 80, 322
    14. Успехи химии. - 1966. - Т.35, №11. - pp. 1936
    15. Химическая энциклопедия. - Т. 4. - М.: Советская энциклопедия, 1995. - pp. 381-383
    16. Якименко Л.М. Производство хлора, каустической соды и неорганических хлорпродуктов. - М.: Химия, 1974. - pp. 464-514
    17. Якименко Л.М., Пасманик М.И. Справочник по производству хлора, каустической соды и соновных хлорпродуктов. - 2 изд. - М.: Химия, 1976. - pp. 243-265
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      © Collected Ruslan Anatolievich Kiper, burewestnik@mail.ru