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Properties of substance:

water




skc-file

Physical appearance:

colorless liquid

Empirical formula (Hill's system):

H2O

Structural formula:

H2O

CAS No: 7732-18-5

Molar/atomic mass: 18.02

Melting point (°C):

0

Boiling point (°C):

100

Solubility (g/100 g of solvent):

1,2-dichloroethane: 0.15 (20°C)
1,2-dichloroethane: 0.187 (25°C)
benzene: 0.055 (20°C)
butyl acrylate: 0.7
butyl acetate: 2.4 (20°C)
water: miscible
hexane: 0.01 (20°C)
heptane: 0.015 (20°C)
diisopropyl ether: 0.87 (20°C)
dichlorodifluoromethane: 0.0002 (-40°C)
dichlorodifluoromethane: 0.0004 (-30°C)
dichlorodifluoromethane: 0.0007 (-20°C)
dichlorodifluoromethane: 0.0014 (-10°C)
dichlorodifluoromethane: 0.0025 (0°C)
dichlorodifluoromethane: 0.0043 (10°C)
dichlorodifluoromethane: 0.0072 (20°C)
dichlorodifluoromethane: 0.0116 (30°C)
dichlorodifluoromethane: 0.0181 (40°C)
chlorodifluoromethane: 0.012 (-40°C)
chlorodifluoromethane: 0.019 (-30°C)
chlorodifluoromethane: 0.028 (-20°C)
chlorodifluoromethane: 0.042 (-10°C)
chlorodifluoromethane: 0.059 (0°C)
chlorodifluoromethane: 0.082 (10°C)
chlorodifluoromethane: 0.111 (20°C)
chlorodifluoromethane: 0.147 (30°C)
chlorodifluoromethane: 0.191 (40°C)
methylene chloride: 0.085 (0°C)
methylene chloride: 0.142 (20°C)
methylene chloride: 0.17 (25°C)
methylene chloride: 0.196 (30°C)
diethyl ether: 1.47 (20°C)
isopentane: 0.0097 (20°C)
m-xylene: 0.03 (20°C)
methanol: miscible
nitrobenzene: 0.19 (20°C)
nitromethane: 2 (20°C)
octane: 0.014 (20°C)
p-cresole: 16.3 (37.1°C)
p-cresole: 28.7 (110.8°C)
p-cresole: 64 (142.5°C)
p-cresole: miscible (142.6°C)
pentane: 0.012 (20°C)
carbon disulphide: 0.0142 (20°C)
carbon tetrachloride: 0.008 (20°C)
carbon tetrachloride: 0.0116 (25°C)
toluene: 0.0335 (10°C)
toluene: 0.045 (20°C)
toluene: 0.06 (30°C)
toluene: 0.0733 (40°C)
toluene: 0.0953 (50°C)
chlorotrifluoromethane: 0.00012 (-40°C)
chlorotrifluoromethane: 0.00026 (-30°C)
chlorotrifluoromethane: 0.00052 (-20°C)
chlorotrifluoromethane: 0.001 (-10°C)
chlorotrifluoromethane: 0.0018 (0°C)
chlorotrifluoromethane: 0.0024 (5°C)
chlorotrifluoromethane: 0.0031 (10°C)
chlorotrifluoromethane: 0.004 (15°C)
chlorotrifluoromethane: 0.0052 (20°C)
chlorotrifluoromethane: 0.0066 (25°C)
carbon dioxide liquid: very slightly soluble
dichlorofluoromethane: 0.009 (-40°C)
dichlorofluoromethane: 0.015 (-30°C)
dichlorofluoromethane: 0.023 (-20°C)
dichlorofluoromethane: 0.036 (-10°C)
dichlorofluoromethane: 0.054 (0°C)
dichlorofluoromethane: 0.078 (10°C)
dichlorofluoromethane: 0.112 (20°C)
dichlorofluoromethane: 0.156 (30°C)
dichlorofluoromethane: 0.214 (40°C)
trichlorofluoromethane: 0.0004 (-40°C)
trichlorofluoromethane: 0.0007 (-30°C)
trichlorofluoromethane: 0.0013 (-20°C)
trichlorofluoromethane: 0.0022 (-10°C)
trichlorofluoromethane: 0.0036 (0°C)
trichlorofluoromethane: 0.0056 (10°C)
trichlorofluoromethane: 0.0086 (20°C)
trichlorofluoromethane: 0.013 (30°C)
trichlorofluoromethane: 0.018 (40°C)
chloroform: 0.0932 (25°C)
cyclohexane: 0.005 (14°C)
cyclohexane: 0.01 (19°C)
cyclohexane: 0.015 (28.5°C)
cyclohexane: 0.02 (32.5°C)
cyclohexane: 0.031 (38°C)
cyclohexane: 0.05 (53°C)
ethanol: miscible
ethyl acetate: 3.3 (20°C)
ethylbenzene: 0.33 (20°C)
Ionization Potentials (Electronvolts): 12.6

Density:

0.99997 (4°C, g/cm3)
0.9971 (25°C, g/cm3)
0.9982 (20°C, g/cm3)
0.95836 (100°C, g/cm3)
0.97777 (70°C, g/cm3)
0.999841 (0°C, g/cm3)
0.999965 (5°C, g/cm3)
0.9997 (10°C, g/cm3)
0.99565 (30°C, g/cm3)
0.99403 (35°C, g/cm3)
0.99221 (40°C, g/cm3)
0.99022 (45°C, g/cm3)
0.98804 (50°C, g/cm3)
0.9857 (55°C, g/cm3)
0.98321 (60°C, g/cm3)
0.98056 (65°C, g/cm3)
0.97486 (75°C, g/cm3)
0.9718 (80°C, g/cm3)
0.96862 (85°C, g/cm3)
0.96531 (90°C, g/cm3)
0.96189 (95°C, g/cm3)
0.9999 (1°C, g/cm3)
0.999941 (2°C, g/cm3)
0.999965 (3°C, g/cm3)

Index of refraction:

1.33369 (0°C)
1.33369 (10°C)
1.33299 (20°C)
1.3325 (25°C)
1.33194 (50°C)
1.32725 (60°C)

Vapour pressure (Torr):

0.03 (-50°C)
0.3 (-30°C)
0.8 (-20°C)
1 (-17.4°C)
1.9 (-10°C)
2.3 (-8°C)
2.8 (-6°C)
3.3 (-4°C)
3.9 (-2°C)
4.6 (0°C)
6.5 (5°C)
9.2 (10°C)
10 (11.2°C)
12.8 (15°C)
17.5 (20°C)
23.8 (25°C)
31.8 (30°C)
55.3 (40°C)
92.5 (50°C)
100 (51.6°C)
289.1 (75°C)
730 (98.9°C)
740 (99.3°C)
750 (99.6°C)
770 (100.4°C)
780 (100.7°C)
1520 (120°C)
3800 (151°C)
7600 (179°C)
38000 (263°C)
76000 (310°C)

Electrode potential:

O1 + 2H+ + 2e- → H2O, E = 2.421 V (water, 25°C)

Dissociation:

pKBH+ (1) = 0 (25°C, water)
pKa (1) = 15.7 (20°C, water)
pKa (1) = 31.2 (25°C, dimethylsulphoxide)
pKa (2) = 29 (25°C, water)

Permittivity (dielectric constant):

78.3 (25°C)

Dipole moment (D):

1.84 (20°C)

Viscosity (mPa·s):

1.792 (0°C)
1.308 (10°C)
1.005 (20°C)
0.894 (25°C)
0.801 (30°C)
0.656 (40°C)
0.549 (50°C)
0.469 (60°C)
0.406 (70°C)
0.3565 (80°C)
0.3165 (90°C)
0.284 (100°C)
0.26 (107°C)
0.22 (127°C)
0.18 (147°C)
0.16 (167°C)
0.14 (187°C)
0.13 (207°C)
0.12 (227°C)
0.11 (247°C)
0.1 (267°C)
0.094 (287°C)
0.086 (307°C)
0.079 (327°C)
0.071 (347°C)
0.042 (374°C)

Surface tension (mN/m):

75.62 (0°C)
74.2 (10°C)
72.75 (20°C)
71.15 (30°C)
69.55 (40°C)
67.9 (50°C)
66.17 (60°C)
64.41 (70°C)
62.6 (80°C)
60.74 (90°C)
58.84 (100°C)
56.97 (110°C)
54.96 (120°C)
52.9 (130°C)
52.79 (140°C)
48.68 (150°C)
46.51 (160°C)
44.38 (170°C)
42.19 (180°C)
40 (190°C)
37.77 (200°C)
35.51 (210°C)
33.21 (220°C)
30.88 (230°C)
28.52 (240°C)
26.13 (250°C)
23.73 (260°C)
21.33 (270°C)
18.94 (280°C)
16.6 (290°C)
14.29 (300°C)
12.04 (310°C)
9.84 (320°C)
7.69 (330°C)
5.61 (340°C)
3.64 (350°C)
2.71 (355°C)
1.85 (360°C)
1.68 (361°C)
1.53 (362°C)
1.07 (365°C)
0.42 (370°C)
0.31 (371°C)
0.2 (372°C)
0.1 (373°C)
0 (374.15°C)

Speed sound (m/s):

1482.7 (20°C, aggregative state - liquid)

Standard molar enthalpy (heat) of formation ΔfH0 (298.15 K, kJ/mol):

-285.83 (l)

Standard molar Gibbs energy of formation ΔfG0 (298.15 K, kJ/mol):

-237.24 (l)

Standard molar entropy S0 (298.15 K, J/mol·K):

70.08 (l)

Molar heat capacity at constant pressure Cp (298.15 K, J/mol·K):

75.299 (l)

Molar enthalpy (heat) of fusion ΔfusH (kJ/mol):

6.009

Enthalpy (heat) of vaporization ΔvapH (kJ/mol):

40.66

Standard molar enthalpy (heat) of formation ΔfH0 (298.15 K, kJ/mol):

-241.82 (g)

Standard molar Gibbs energy of formation ΔfG0 (298.15 K, kJ/mol):

-228.61 (g)

Standard molar entropy S0 (298.15 K, J/mol·K):

188.72 (g)

Molar heat capacity at constant pressure Cp (298.15 K, J/mol·K):

33.58 (g)

Critical temperature (°C):

374.15

Critical pressure (MPa):

22.12

Critical density (g/cm3):

0.32

    References:

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    2. Dean J.A. Lange's handbook of chemistry. - 1999. - pp. 5.87
    3. Holleman A.F., Wiberg E., Wiberg N. Lehrbuch der Anorganischen Chemie. - Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1995. - pp. 238
    4. Seidell A. Solubilities of inorganic and metal organic compounds. - 3ed., vol.1. - New York: D. Van Nostrand Company, 1940. - pp. 583-588
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    10. Рабинович В.А., Хавин З.Я. Краткий химический справочник. - Л.: Химия, 1977. - pp. 59
    11. Справочник по растворимости. - Т.1, Кн.1. - М.-Л.: ИАН СССР, 1961. - pp. 529
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    13. Успехи химии. - 2006. - Т.75, №1. - pp. 64-85
    14. Физические величины. - Под ред. Григорьева И.С., Мейлихова Е.З. - М.: Энергоатомиздат, 1991. - pp. 138, 332, 370
    15. Химическая энциклопедия. - Т.1. - М.: Советская энциклопедия, 1988. - pp. 394-397
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